LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES - Spelling
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The Student Workbook provides exercises and a special Dictionary to teach how syllables are compounded in multi-syllable words, as well as the spelling patterns used in a variety of prefixes and suffixes.
Over 3,000 multi-syllable words are included in the lessons.
Lessons proceed in the following order:
This is an ordered list.
- The nature of compounding using whole words: 'sunset' 'firefly'.
- Root word transformations for adding ing, and ed.
- Turning verbs into persons by adding er.
- Changing common root words (nouns or verbs) to other parts of speech: 'bright' – brighten, brighter, brightest, brightly.
- Reading and spelling words with adjacent vowel sounds: 'po/et' 'ra/di/o' – 'o/a/sis, vi/o/lent.
- Common prefixes and their meaning: de, re, pre, pro, be, e, im, in, em, en.
- Suffixes spelled alike but pronounced differently, such as: machine, refine, famine.
- The spelling of the 'schwa'* vowel at the beginning and ends of words: a/bout, a/gend/a
- The spellings for 'schwa' vowels in the middle of words: redundant, benefit, hesitate, collect, industry.
- A Dictionary of 2,000 words with spelling alternatives for Old French, Latin, and Greek-based suffixes.
- Latin root words and definitions.
- Latin and Greek-based prefixes and definitions
- Words of Greek origin with special spellings: myth, pneumonia, rhapsody, xylophone.
*A "schwa" is the weakest, briefest vowel in a multi-syllable word. It is the result of 'sloppy' pronunciation and always sounds "uh". It has 5 main spellings.
The Allographs I Dictionary is a unique sound-based dictionary in which words containing a particular sound are listed under each of the spelling alternatives for that sound. It contains over 3,000 words. Words are set out in alphabetical order down and across the page. Students can see at a glance which sound is easy or difficult to spell. The sound /a/ has only one spelling (cat); the sound /ee/ has 10 (be, seem, dream, lucky, donkey, believe, deceive, serene, radio, marine.) Lessons direct students to search for common patterns in these spelling alternatives which will make them memorable.
With practice, students can easily "look up sounds to spell." This is in contrast to a conventional dictionary where you have to know the spelling before you can look up a word. This means the Dictionary not only links to a useful set of exercises, but allows students to be able to check their own spelling during creative writing.
Allographs I Worksheets/Storybook is a central component of the lessons. Worksheet exercises are designed for every lesson and rely heavily on the Allographs Dictionary. They involve categorizing and sorting words with the target sound into their various spelling alternatives, and a variety of other analytic tasks. Writing is a primary emphasis and has been found to dramatically enhance learning and memory.
The Storybook contains 39 'sound-targeting stories.' The stories feature words containing a target sound using common spelling alternatives. Stories are humorous, written in rhyme, and have great appeal to children and adults alike. Lessons provide a choice of stories at various difficulty levels.
Sample text from "Lance the Prince and Sometimes King of France:"
(Lance the Prince temporarily became the King of France when his father King Percy abdicated to spend time riding his horse. We pick up the story when 6-year old Lance gave his first speech to the stunned citizens of France:)
Now that Lance was King,
He gave a speech on the castle balcony.
"I decree," said he, "The second century A.D.
Is KIDS' century."
"In every castle, in every house,
No kids from henceforth
Will go to class
Clean up their mess,
Eat rice pudding, hot cereal, or spinach,
Wash their face with soap, or floss."
The target sound is /s/. Can you find all the words that contain the sound /s/ and the various spellings for this sound? Watch out, the letter s can also stand for the sound /z/.
Allographs* is a revolutionary spelling/reading program based on the author's analysis of the structure of the English writing system. In a perfect alphabetic writing system, there is one spelling for each sound in the language. Italy, Spain, Finland, and Korea come closest to this ideal. The English writing system is one of the most complex writing systems in the world, with multiple spellings for each of the 40 sounds in our language. Careful analysis reveals that around 90% of words in print are represented by 176 spellings. When these spellings are taught in a systematic way – consistent with the logic of the alphabet code, all students learn to read and spell with relative ease.
Allographs I Manual contains 63 lessons using common English words up to 3 syllables long. It is designed for students with a reading/spelling age of 7 to 8 years. Lessons are partially scripted, and no training is required to teach this effectively. All necessary support materials are available (see below). It is designed to be used in all settings (home, tutoring center, classroom), and works equally well for students with reading and spelling difficulties.
The complete Allographs I program consists of the Manual, the Allographs I Dictionary, and the Allographs I Worksheets/Storybook. All components are essential to teach the program effectively. (See other Allographs entries for details.)
*Allographs: "All the graphs (letters) for each sound in a language."
English is a compounding language in which root words are modified (changed in meaning) by adding prefixes and suffixes. The rules of the spelling game change at this level – and attention shifts to the syllable unit and spellings for prefixes and suffixes. This new knowledge makes a profound difference in reading and spelling skills, and dramatically enhances reading comprehension and vocabulary.
Lessons begin with simple compounding of common English words (doghouse, sunset), and gradually build to include Latin and Greek-based words up to 6 syllables in length. For example: 'inform' (a verb) can be changed to a noun by adding the suffix 'shun' spelled: tion a suffix used in thousands of words. It has three common spellings: information, aggression, optician, and four rare ones. Once the student learns when these spellings are used (ÔcianÕ always marks an occupation), difficult words suddenly become easy to read and spell. Long 'scary' words like: 'determination' can be broken down to easily decodable units: de/ter/min/a/tion. Once these patterns are understood, students as young as 8 years can learn to read and spell thousands of new words in a just a few lessons.
Allographs II Manual contains 59 partially scripted lessons. Sample lessons for the higher levels of the code provide a platform for continuing development using the Student Workbook/Dictionary. Both components are essential to teach this program effectively.